Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA) is a test to diagnose and detect the Palladium antibodies of a patient against the causative agents of syphilis. The process involves sensitizing the red blood cells with T.palladium (Syphilis) fragment in a test dish.
Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA) is a test to detect the Palladium antibodies from the blood of a patient against the causative agents of syphilis (Treponema pallidum). The process involves sensitizing the red blood cells with T. palladium fragments. When exposed to the serum sample infected with syphilis the cells aggregate on the surface of the test dish.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. It is the most common sexual transmitted disease and it requires TPHA test for diagnosis. The disease starts as a painless sore that affects the genitals, rectum or mouth. It can be spread to other people through skin contact with the sores.
Syphilis is spread through skin-to-skin contact from someone who has it, people can only get syphilis through sexual intercourse. Syphilis could easily affect people who are sexually active and it could also be passed down to a baby during pregnancy and childbirth.
Syphilis progresses through several stages and the symptoms for syphilis may vary depending on its stage. Though it doesn’t always occur in the same order, the stages may overlap. The stages for syphilis are shown below:
- Primary Syphilis
- Secondary Syphilis
- Latent Syphilis
- Congenital syphilis
If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, then it is suggested to take the TPHA test.
The cause of syphilis is a bacterium called Treponema pallidum. The most common route of transmission is through contact with an infected person's sore during sexual activity. The bacteria enter your body through minor cuts or abrasions in your skin or mucous membranes. Syphilis is contagious during its primary and secondary stages, and sometimes in the early latent period.
How to Identify?
If you think you might have syphilis, go to your doctor as soon as possible. They’ll take a blood sample to run tests, and they’ll also conduct a thorough physical examination. If a sore is present, your doctor may take a sample from the sore to determine if the syphilis bacteria are present.
If your doctor suspects that you’re having nervous system problems because of tertiary syphilis, you may need a lumbar puncture, or spinal tap. During this procedure, spinal fluid is collected so that your doctor can test for syphilis bacteria.
The four stages of syphilis are:
Syphilis is most infectious in the first two stages.
When syphilis is in the hidden, or latent, stage, the disease remains active but often with no symptoms. Tertiary syphilis is the most destructive to health.
What to Do?
The best way to prevent syphilis is to practice safe sex. Use condoms during any type of sexual contact. In addition, it may be helpful to:
- Use a dental dam (a square piece of latex) or condoms during oral sex.
- Avoid sharing sex toys.
- Get screened for STIs and talk to your partners about their results.
Syphilis can also be transmitted through shared needles. Avoid sharing needles if using injected drugs.